Financial fraud- These are the frauds where unsuspecting people are lured by promising investments, business or job opportunities and are deceived of their money and other valuables. These includes mass marketing and false offering of jobs overseas, Nigerian frauds etc. and are covered under sections of IPC, IT Act and other laws discussed separately.
Data Modification- In this type of crime, the criminal gains entry into the targeted systems (like- financial systems) and modifies or changes the data contained there. This can also be committed by authorized users of the computers inside the company. [Sec. 66 of IT Act 2000 and Sec. 403, 406, 408, 409 IPC]
Identity theft and its misuse- It is theft of sensitive identity information like- date of birth, name, PAN/passport/credit card numbers, e-mails account etc., for fraudulent purposes. The criminal may adopt techniques like- phishing, sending some links to victim’s e-mail address and asking them to furnish confidential information, or obtaining the information through social engineering, using key-loggers etc. [Sec. 66C, 66D of IT Act 2008]
Cyber bullying/stalking- It can be defined as use of information and communication technologies to harass, threaten or intimidate some other person. It includes- sending online threats, provocative insults or racial/ethnic slurs, gay bashing or intentionally flooding an e-mail inbox with messages. [Sect. 66A of IT Act 2008 and sec. 500, 504 to 509 IPC]
Data theft- It can be defined as copying any data without permission of the owner of a computer, computer system. It includes breaking into the system and copying classified and sensitive information in the workplace/business like- contact details, addresses, user names/passwords, credit card/bank account numbers, business communications and /or other related information. [Sec. 66 of IT Act 2008 and Sec. 379 IPC]
Pornography- It is posting, publishing and transmitting obscene messages, texts, chats, photographs or videos over the internet, through e-mails, websites or other forms. Child pornography is one of the biggest unlawful ventures on the Cyberspace. That is covered under Sec. 66E, 67, 67A and 66B of IT Act 2008 and Sec. 292 IPC.
Theft of intellectual property/trade secrets- It is theft of knowledge-based assets and capital, trade designs, logos, ideas and innovations material copyrighted by an individual or organization. It includes documents, audios, videos or movies. The most common IP thefts are related to the software and their source code. [Sec. 66 of IT Act 2008, IPR & other laws]
Espionage on protected systems- It is spying and espionage conducted over the cyberspace. Such kind of activities are normally conducted against the Govt. systems, by the intelligence officials of the rival countries, with a view to access sensitive and strategic information. [Sec. 66, 70 of ITAA 2008 and other laws]