Techniques used in Cyber crimes- Cyber Criminals make use of various tools & techniques. Many of these tools are installed on the victim’s computer systems by surreptitiously gaining access (virtual or physical) and exploiting the vulnerabilities. The criminal may deceive the victim to himself allow an access, or may use the sensitive information (like-user ID & passwords), or may use intermediaries, for the purpose. Once installed, they are used for malicious maneuvers, using some common techniques given below.
Malware/Spyware- Malware is a program that is covertly pushed into a computer system with an intent to compromise its integrity, or availability of data/applications/operating system, or otherwise annoying or disrupting the victim. Spyware is atype of malicious code, installed into a system to secretly gather information on individuals/organizations.
Cracking- It is breaking into someone’s computer system, bypassing passwords or licenses, or by other methods which intentionally breach a system’s security. That could be done either for a profit, or for malicious/other purposes.
Data Diddling- Involves altering the raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after processing is complete.
Buffer overflow- Buffers are the temporary data storage areas created to contain some extra information which has to go somewhere else. When a program/process tries to store more data than it was intended to hold, that overflows into the adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them. It is used to destroy a system’s data.
Rootkit- It is a set of secret tools that enables continued privileged access to a computer, while actively hiding its presence from the administrator. Usually, after obtaining user-level access, a cracker installs a rootkit on the computer either by cracking its password or by exploiting a known vulnerability. Once installed, it allows the attacker to mask the intrusion and gain root or privileged access to the computer/other machines on the system network.
Salami Attack- It is a programmed attack implemented in small unnoticeable increments. It involves making alterations which go completely unnoticed. For example, if a program deducts some insignificant amount so transferred would be huge.
Sniffer- It is a program/device that monitors data traveling over a network. It can be used for legitimate network management as well as for stealing information off the network. They can be inserted almost anywhere and are virtually impossible to detect.
Social engineering- It is a non-technical intrusion for deceiving and manipulating unwitting people into giving out sensitive information about a system/network. A common example is sending friend-requests and/or use of honeypots.
Steganography- It involves writing hidden messages in such a way that none, except the sender and the recipient, can suspects the existence of any message. For example, an apparently innocent Lohri/ID sticker may contain hidden messages between the terror groups.
Trojan- It is a malicious program that masquerade as a benign application and once installed, can take complete control of the victim’s computer system.
Virus/Worm/Zombie- Virus I a self-replicating program that runs and spreads by modifying other programs or files. On the other hand, a worm is not only a self-replicating, but also a self-propagating and self-contained program that uses networking mechanism to spread. Zombie is a program that (once installed) causes a system to attack another systems.